Title : Effect of fast-food consumption on the development of cardiometabolic risk factors: A rapid review
Today’s sedentary lifestyle and fast-paced advancements are substantially increasing the prevalence and severity of various cardiometabolic risk factors. With the newly emerging evidence on the health benefits of full-fat products, the need for a review that summarizes the results of the most recent studies about outcome of excessive fast food consumption arises.
This systematic review aims at evaluating the latest evidence regarding the correlation between excessive fast-food intake and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases as compared to low fast-food intake.
All quantitative, original research studies published in English after 2014 and reporting at least one of the outcomes of interest were considered eligible. Articles that did not report the correlation between fast-food intake and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes were excluded.
This review followed the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology. The author conducted a search on Scopus, Medline, PubMed, and google scholar. Articles that passed the two screening phases were appraised for methodological quality and results related to the outcomes of Metabolic Syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases were extracted. Data were synthesized using a meta-analysis based on a random effect model where possible.
The results of thirteen studies are reported in this review. All articles were found to have good methodological quality. Six articles reported the association with metabolic syndrome, 11 with diabetes, and 2 with cardiac diseases. Most of them have found significant correlations. Meta-analysis for the association of excessive fast-food intake with metabolic syndrome gives a significant combined OR of 1.16. Whereas meta-analysis for the association with diabetes resulted in a non-significant correlation, with OR=0.96.
Most studies continue to reveal a moderate to strong correlation between fast-food consumption and at least some cardiovascular risk factors. The significance of the results is largely dependent on the comparator being low fast-food intake or a healthy diet and the specific outcome studied. Overall, the results of this review align with those of previous studies.
This review revealed a statistically significant association between excessive consumption of fast food and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Additional studies are needed to better establish the correlation between the long-term consumption of specific components of fast food and the development of one or more cardiovascular risk factors.
Audience Take Away Notes:
- There is a statistically significant correlation between excessive fast-food intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome.
- By combining the latest evidence on the correlation between fast-food consumption and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary artery disease, this rapid review underscored the side effects of a fast-food diet
- This review can be expanded to future reviews and cohort studies are needed to provide clearer evidence on the independent contribution of the various elements in the diet to the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease