Leading Speaker for Nursing Conferences 2019- Sathiyalatha Satrathi

Title: Epidemiological Research And Applications In Public Health

Sathiyalatha Sarathi

Sree Balaji College of Nursing, India

Biography

Prof.Sathiyalatha Sarathi completed Bachelor of Science in 1997, masters of Science in Nursing in 2002, accomplished Ph.D programme in 2016 under the Tamil Nadu Dr.M.G.R Medical University. At present working as Vice Principal and H.O.D of Obstetrical and Gynecological Nursing dept, Sree Balaji College of Nursing, India, She had organized International conferences and workshops. She presented scientific papers in various conferences. She went as resource speaker in many other colleges. She had published 23 research articles, case studies and review articles in National and International journals. She went for training program on writing for research and publication in University of   Edinburgh.  She received best scientific paper award in International conference in 2014, best teacher award from Bharath University in 2015 and received award in recognition of Academic excellence and outstanding contribution to nursing research.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:
Epidemiological research is a part of public health and health service's research. This is carried out with human participants or data or biological samples from them.
This provides important new knowledge that is not readily obtainable in other ways. The main purposes of epidemiological research are:
 - Improving health and welfare in human population.
 - Improving the efficiency and performance of human health services.
Epidemiology research is a search for causes and risk factors of diseases. laboratory science combines with epidemiology to provide the evidence for causation. 
For Example:
A team of epidemiologists were   able to identify a variety of risk factors during an outbreak of 'Pneumonia' among person attending the American Legion Convention in 1976.  From these findings and the bacillus identified in the laboratory 6 months later, the syndrome called Legionnaires disease came into being.      1. Laboratory science is a part of epidemiological research
2. Epidemiological studies:

  1.      Observational studies
  2.      Descriptive studies
  3.      Intervention studies (Randomized clinical trials (RCT’s) )

Goal for Epidemiological research:

To reduce morbidity or mortality from diseases by detecting them in their earliest stages, where treatment is more successful. 

Categories of information collected in Epidemiological Research:
In epidemiological research, medically relevant information about individuals and groups are accumulated. This includes the use of the following types of data:

(I) Identified:
          Data that allows the identification of a special individual called identified data - Examples are the individual name, date of birth and address.
(II) Potentially identified: (coded, re- identified)
          Data may have identified removed and replaced by a code. In such case, it is possible to use the code to re-identify the person to whom the data is related. 
(III) De-Identified (not re-identifiable, anonymous) 
- The process of de-identification can be irreversible if the identifiers have been removed permanently. 
- Sets of data from which only names have been removed, remain. 'Potentially identified'.
Application in Public Health:
Epidemiology studies help to assess the health needs of community by
1. Providing a detailed description of the health of the population.
2. Identifying the population at greatest risk of acquiring a particular disease, target groups, prevalent health groups etc..
3. Providing important clues to the causes of the disease.
Descriptive epidemiological study provides data on:

 Whether the health services are available, accessible, effective and efficient.

Analytical studies are used in public health:

 To identify the association between exposures and outcomes.

 To test the hypothesis about casual relationship.

 To confirm etiological basis of a disease.

Long term studies help:

To predict future incidence of a disease.
To suggest what caused an increase or decrease in the occurrence of a disease, when related events took place.

Conclusion:

The greatest strength of a epidemiological studies are which provides high reliability and accuracy of the study results.

The profile nurses in 21st century have to work with their hearts and minds. They expected to identify actual and potential health problems of the clients and develop research based strategies to prevent to ameliorate and comfort to clients.

Today Epidemiological research is most warranted to promote health status of our country.