5th Edition of Nursing World Conference

October 18-20, 2021 | Orlando, USA

October 18 -20, 2021 | Orlando, USA
NWC 2021

Rebecca Toothaker

Speaker at  Nursing World Conference 2021 - Rebecca Toothaker
Bloomsburg University, United States
Title : Reflective journaling through one minute paper


Background: Reflective journaling has been the impetus to promote a learner-centered environment where the student learns the practice of nursing through reflection. The National League of Nursing (2019) reiterates the importance of reflection and critical thinking within the core competencies. Reflection through journaling encourages active student learning which is recognized as best teaching practice. Students generate self-awareness, and learn to foster a safe environment when reflective thinking and journaling are paired together as a teaching strategy. The use of a flipped classroom in nursing education programs can enhance critical reflection and critical thinking outcomes. This study aimed to develop and examine a Reflective Journaling Tool to evaluate the one-minute paper technique as an effective journaling method in one academic setting.

Methodology: A mixed method study was conducted with nursing students from two cohorts during one semester. This purpose of this study was to measure Generation Z’s perspective of the use of reflective journaling through the one-minute paper as a reflective tool. A newly developed 16- item questionnaire was used as a pretest-posttest design to explore the students perceived level of individual reflection in the nursing classroom. Students were asked to journal at the end of traditional lecture using two prompts: 1) What is one thing you learned in the classroom today? and 2) what is the muddiest point? At the beginning of the next lecture the students were presented with a compiled list of muddiest points along with a study guide using pictograms, tables, charts, and further explanation of unclear concepts to enhance understanding. Data was collected from sophomore and junior-level undergraduate nursing students from one pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing program for one semester.

Results: Data was analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis showing positive correlation of reflection when using this innovative teaching strategy. Students’ narratives were positive and accentuating the use of reflective journaling in examination of content learned. The results further conclude a positive correlation in the use of the one-minute paper to develop a better understanding of the content when compared to traditional lecture-based class; stimulates class discussion; aided participation, enhanced peer learning and critical thinking.

Conclusion: An emerging movement in nursing education recognizes the value of educating students with multiple innovative teaching strategies, develop critical and reflective thinking skills for practice, and instilling attitudes and values related to effective reflection. This method offers a new lens on traditional pedagogy in nursing education, that can aid in critical thinking and application of concepts in the new generation of nurses.


Dr. Rebecca Toothaker, associate professor at Bloomsburg University, United States graduated with her PhD in 2014 from University of Phoenix. Rebecca’s research interests lie in generation learning and active teaching strategies. She has published her dissertation in Journal of Professional Nursing entitled “A phenomenological study of millennial students in traditional pedagogy.” Her most recent publication Development and Validation of the Just Culture Assessment Tool for Nursing Education (JCAT-NE) was published in Nurse Educator (2020).