Title : Effects of internet-based mindfulness training on depression in adults during the COVID-19 outbreak
Objective: Because of the COVID-19 outbreak, internet-based mindfulness training has become popular. It is simple, effective, and suitable for all populations. However, there is a lack of complete evidence that internet-based mindfulness training (IBMT) improves depression symptoms in adults during an outbreak. The objective of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term effects of internet-based mindfulness training for depression in adults during the outbreak. The groups and session designs of IBMT applications were analyzed by subgroup. It provides the basis for future research, clinical practices, and guidelines.
Methods: According to PRISMA 2020 guidelines, the search of six databases (CEPS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE) began in March 2022. We included randomized controlled trials that have been published in both Chinese and English. We investigated whether adults who received internet-based mindfulness training during the outbreak had reduced depression symptomatology. The quality of the evidence was assessed based on the risk of bias (Cochrane risk of bias version 1.0).
Results: From the 56 search results, 11 studies met the inclusion criteria (the number of participants for each group ranges from 13 to 126). The participants in these studies were between 18 and 72 years old. The age range can be divided into young adults (18 to 39 years old) and middle-aged and older adults (40 years or above). IBMT was designed to be more than 60 minutes, 1-2 times or 3–4 times a week, and the setting of 3–4 weeks is the most common. And follow up on the long-term results in the 5th or 8th week. Results of the meta-analysis showed that IBMT could have short- (MD = -0.38?95% CI [-0.53, -0.23], Z = 4.91, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%) and long-term effects (MD = -0.25?95% CI [-0.47, -0.03], Z = 2.18, p < 0.05, I2 = 0%) on depression in adults during an outbreak. In subgroup analysis, IBMT have significantly improved depression in young age (MD = -0.43?95% CI [-0.65, -0.20], Z = 3.76, p < 0.001, I2 = 22%) more than it did in middle-aged and older adults (MD = -0.90?95% CI [-0.60, -0.03], Z = 2.54, p < 0.05, I2 = 90%). Furthermore, IBMT designed to be in groups approach (MD = -0.32?95% CI [-0.50, -0.13], Z = 3.30, p < 0.01, I2 = 0%), each time lasting more than 60 minutes (MD = -0.31?95% CI [-0.48, -0.15], Z = 3.79, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%), 1-2 times a week (MD = -0.29?95% CI [-0.50, -0.09], Z = 2.79, p < 0.01, I2 = 0%), and for a continuous 3–4 weeks (MD= -0.29?95% CI [-0.53, -0.04], Z = 2.32, p < 0.05, I2 = 0%) has a better effect on improving depression.
Conclusion: Our findings provide preliminary evidence that IBMT for depression in adults improves short- and long- term outcomes, as well as curriculum design during the outbreak. Furthermore, this article also adds scientifically verified viewpoints from the perspective that IBMT has become fashionable during the outbreak.
Registration number: PROSPERO CRD42022320783
Keywords: internet-based mindfulness training?adults?depression?COVID-19
- We investigated internet-based mindfulness training as a stand-alone intervention during the COVID-19 outbreak.
- During the outbreak, we provided preliminary evidence in the form of an internet-based mindfulness training program.
- Internet-based mindfulness training exhibited positive effects on depression during the COVID-19 outbreak.
- Validate the current Internet-based mindfulness training from a scientific standpoint, not just popularity.