HYBRID EVENT: You can participate in person at Boston, Massachusetts, USA or Virtually from your home or work.

7th Edition of Nursing World Conference

October 16-18, 2023 | Boston, Massachusetts, USA

October 16 -18, 2023 | Boston, Massachusetts, USA
NWC 2023

Mercedes Tejada

Speaker at  Nursing World Conference 2023 - Mercedes Tejada
Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, United States
Title : Literature review in T2DM in geriatrics population



  • The study addresses the effect of exercise and diet on type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
  • An estimated 37.3 million Americans have diabetes, with 1.4 million incidence in 2019 (CDC, 2023).
  • The total cost of treating and managing T2DM is $327 billon annually (CDC, 2023).
  • The study assesses the efficacy of combined therapy compared to pharmacotherapy alone in managing T2DM.


  • T2DM adversely affects patient quality of life.
  • The condition leads to other comorbidities, including obesity and hypertension (Soleimani et al., 2020).
  • Increasing prevalence and incidence, despite current pharmacotherapeutic interventions.
  • There is a need for more research to establish evidence-based and holistic approaches to T2DM management.


  • As highlighted, T2DM’s incidence is on the increase, with 1.4 new cases in 2019 alone (CDC, 2023).
  •  High annual treatment and management costs.
  • Reduced quality of life for affected persons.
  • Persons older than 60 years at more risk of T2DM and its complications.
  • Developing more effective therapies for T2DM is vital in enhancing the quality of life of those affected.
  • PICOT: In a population of adults aged 60 years and over (P), what is the effect of a combination of physical activity and improved diet, and pharmacotherapy (I) in comparison to pharmacotherapy alone (C) in the management of type II diabetes (O) over six months (T)?


  • A critical appraisal and systematic review of quantitative studies.
  • Three databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Excerpta Medical Database (EMBASE) used.
  • Keywords, such as physical activity. Dieting, and pharmacotherapy used.
  • Boolean operators applied to narrow to the most appropriate sources from the database.
  • Inclusion criteria: Studies in English, published between 2019 and 2023, and including randomized controlled trials.
  • 1187 studies initially found and narrowed to 83 after applying the limiters.
  • The abstracts of the 83 studies skimmed to confirm their quality.
  • 12 studies selected for the synthesis of literature.


  • Betty Neuman's System Model guides this work which emphasizes the need for holistic care to address the different causes of disease and ensure patient satisfaction.
  • Physical activity and diet effective in reducing blood glucose levels.
  • Resistance training improved quality of life scores from 22.58 to 27.52 (p= 0.001) (Soleimani et al., 2020; Teo et al., 2020; Terauchi et al., 2022).
  • Pharmacotherapy alone did not reduce blood glucose levels.
  • Metformin and insulin combined with diets and exercise reduced blood glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (Arguello et al., 2020; Jalilvand et al., 2020; Rosenberg, 2021).
  • Exercise, diet, and medication reduced glycemic levels from -0.61 to -0.28 at 95% CI (Terauchi et al., 2021; Van de Velde et al., 2021; Weber et al., 2022).
  • Combination therapy improves quality of life.


  • Combined therapy more effective than pharmacotherapy alone in managing T2DM.
  • Low calorie diet and physical activity effective in reducing body weight and blood glucose (Soleimani et al., 2019; Jalilvand et al., 2020; Rosenberg, 2021).
  • Insulin and metformin lead to adverse side effects when used alone in the long-term.
  • Gaps in precise prescription of combined therapy may adversely affect efficacy.


  • Combined therapy effectively manages T2DM.
  • The evidence can be translated into practice through interprofessional collaboration.
  • Advocacy for policies and care protocols supporting holistic care.
  • Inter-disciplinary collaboration to support care continuity and enhance patient outcomes.


  • Future research should address the gaps in safety due lack of precise prescription.
  • More emphasis on exercise duration and intensity, and type of foods.
  • Examining possible contraindications and side effects.